Patients with nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC)—ie, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)—have an increased risk of developing a second skin cancer. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency, incidence per 1000 person-years, and predictors of a second skin cancer in a cohort of patients with NMSC treated with Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS).
Material and methods
Prospective study of a national cohort of patients with NMSC who underwent MMS at 22 Spanish hospitals between July 2013 and February 2020; case data were recorded in the REGESMOHS registry. The study variables included demographic characteristics, frequency and incidence per 1000 person-years of second skin cancers diagnosed during the study period, and risk factors identified using mixed-effects logistic regression.
We analyzed data for 4768 patients who underwent MMS; 4397 (92%) had BCC and 371 (8%) had SCC. Mean follow-up was 2.4 years. Overall, 1201 patients (25%) developed a second skin cancer during follow-up; 1013 of the tumors were BCCs (21%), 154 were SCCs (3%), and 20 were melanomas (0.4%). The incidence was 107 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 101–113) for any cancer, 90 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 85–96) for BCC, 14 (95% CI, 12–16) per 1000 person-years for SCC, and 2 (95% CI, 1–3) per 1000 person-years for melanoma. More men than women developed a subsequent skin cancer (738 [61%] vs 463 [39%]). The main risk factors were a history of multiple tumors before diagnosis (relative risk [RR], 4.6; 95% CI, 2.9–7.1), immunosuppression (RR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.4–3.1), and male sex (RR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.4–1.9).
Patients have an increased risk of developing a second tumor after MMS treatment of NMSC. Risk factors are a history of multiple tumors at diagnosis, immunosuppression, and male sex.