The worldwide explosion of interest in artificial intelligence (AI) has created a before-and-after moment in our lives by generating great improvements in such sectors as the automotive and food production industries. AI has even been called the fourth industrial revolution. Machine learning through AI is helping to improve professional processes and promises to transform the health care sector as we know it in various ways: 1) through applications able to promote health in the general population by providing high-quality information and offering advice for different segments of the population based on prediction models; 2) by developing prediction models based on anonymized clinical data, for preventive purposes in primary care; 3) by analyzing images to provide additional decision-making support for health care providers, for improving specialist care at the secondary level; and 4) through robotics applied to processes that promote health and well-being. However, the medical profession harbors doubts about whether this revolution is a threat or an opportunity owing to a lack of understanding of AI technology and the methods used to validate its applications. This article outlines basic aspects of AI as it is applied in dermatology and reviews the main advances achieved in the last 5 years.