Comparative Analysis of Umbilical Nodules in Male and Female Patients: A 20-Year Retrospective Study

Análisis comparativo de los nódulos umbilicales en pacientes masculinos y femeninos: un estudio retrospectivo de 20 años

Background and aims

The umbilicus is known to receive metastatic malignancy from diverse visceral organs. Accurate and correct diagnosis of umbilical lesions is imperative since metastatic malignancy signifies a serious underlying situation with dire prognosis. Identification of demographic features that can contribute to diagnostic resolution of umbilical lesions is desirable. We analyzed umbilical biopsies received over a 20-year period to determine any gender distinctive attributes of umbilical nodules.

Materials and method

All umbilical biopsies received in our department from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2019 were identified and analyzed. Data acquired included patient's gender, age, date of biopsy, type of biopsy and histopathological diagnoses and these were analyzed using computer software.


There were 67 umbilical biopsies from 22 males and 45 females giving a male: female ratio of 1:2. The difference between the mean age (SD) of male patients [47.8 years (19.4 years)] and that of the females [42.8 years (13.9 years)] was not statistically significant (p=0.28). Twenty-five of the 67 umbilical lesions were benign while 42 were malignant. About 90.9% of biopsies in males were malignant and 9.1% benign while 48.9% of biopsies in females were malignant and 51.1% benign. The odds of malignant umbilical biopsy in males compared to females is 10.5 [OR=10.5; 95% CI=2.2–50.1)].


Umbilical biopsies were relatively infrequent in our practice and were more common in females than males. Umbilical lesions presented by males are mostly malignant. Overall, 78% of all umbilical lesions in females were of gynecological derivation.

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