This review aims at identifying research trends in medical education focused on clinical reasoning and argumentation for the resolution of specific problems in the area of medicine. A systematic literature review was performed comprising articles from 2015 to 2019 with the keywords; Clinical Reasoning and Medical Education. A total of 191 articles were initially found, of which 52 were analyzed as they were in accordance with the criteria designed for the study. Most studies had a qualitative design and, although they were focused on the teaching process, there was a fundamental recognition of the student in the design of strategies and methods. The theoretical and thematic categories most addressed were new trends in teaching strategies, resolution of medical practice problems, and the decrease in diagnostic error. This type of study allows the delimitation of fields of research, and clarifies the state of progress, approaches, and interests of researchers dedicated to this particular area. It is concluded that the investigation of teaching practices that lead to the promotion of argumentation in students has become a field of exploration, and introduces new perspectives in relation to the training process. This supports the need to integrate the method into teaching and learning processes of health sciences, as well as in the theoretical and methodological developments resulting from research on specific didactics.