[Translated article] Cutaneous and Mucosal Conditions Associated With Cocaine Use

Cuadros cutáneo-mucosos asociados al consumo de cocaína

Cocaine and some of its main adulterants, such as levamisole, can cause multiple cutaneous and mucosal manifestations, including ischemic complications, neutrophilic dermatoses, midline destructive lesions, and vasculitis associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs). Striking systemic symptoms are generally not seen. In all these conditions, positive test results may be observed for antinuclear antibodies, antiphospholipid antibodies, and various ANCAs, sometimes with characteristic staining patterns. Histology typically shows vascular changes, such as leukocytoclastic vasculitis, necrotizing vasculitis, and thrombi. We review the clinical, serologic, and histologic features of cutaneous and mucosal conditions associated with the use of cocaine and also look at pathophysiologic mechanisms, differential diagnoses, and treatments.

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