Background and objective
Genital warts are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), whose genotypes have traditionally been classified as low risk or high risk (oncogenic). The first 2 prophylactic vaccines included the most common genotypes at the time: HPV-6, HPV-11, HPV-16, and HPV-18. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of HPV types in our setting 10 years after the introduction of HPV vaccines.
Material and methods
Descriptive, observational, retrospective study of patients diagnosed with genital warts at the sexually transmitted infection unit of a dermatology department between January 2016 and June 2019.
In total, 362 patients were diagnosed with genital warts during the study period, and 212 (58.6%) underwent genotyping. Thirty-two distinct HPV types were observed, the most common being HPV-6, HPV-11, HPV-16, and HPV-42. HPV DNA was detected in 93.9% of the samples analyzed, and there were 299 genotypes (mean, 1.5 per patient). Overall, 26.6% of patients had more than a single HPV genotype, while 24.1% had at least 1 high-risk type. No significant associations were found between the presence of high-risk HPV types and any of the study variables. At least 2 of the 4 HPV types targeted in the original vaccines were detected in 94.1% of lesions.
Compared to 10 years ago, the prevalences of HPV types included in the first 2 prophylactic vaccines have decreased, while the proportion of patients with at least 1 of the 4 most common types has remained unchanged. We also observed a slight increase in infections with multiple HPV types or at least 1 high-risk type.