Knowledge, attitude, and practice towards COVID-19: Research to develop a measuring instrument

Conocimiento, actitud y práctica frente a la COVID-19: Investigación para desarrollar un instrumento de medición


To evaluate the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of individuals about COVID-19 and to develop a valid and reliable scale that can measure these items about COVID-19 and other similar pandemic processes.


Methodological scale study with a quantitative approach.


Carried out at the Uludağ University Family Health Center in Bursa, Turkey.


415 individuals in the first phase and 367 in the retest phase.


Carried out between March 1, 2021, and April 30, 2021.

Main measurements

Reliability and factor analyses were performed and validity was evaluated. In factor analysis, a scale with 4 factors and 30 questions was obtained. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was applied to the factor scores of the scale. Factors were named A-General Culture, B-Mask, Distance and Cleanliness, C-Mental Status, and D-Way of Information. A 3-point Likert-type scoring system was created for the responses.


Cronbach's alpha value was 0.894. In factor modeling, 3 of the confirmatory factor analysis fit indices were good and 4 of them were acceptable, so our model was found to be appropriate. The scale was highly reliable, according to internal and external consistency coefficients. The scale was named the Turkey COVID-19 Attitude Scale. p values<0.05 were considered statistically significant.


The valid and reliable Turkey COVID-19 Attitude Scale, which we developed to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of individuals about COVID-19, can be used to guide research during COVID-19 and future pandemics.

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